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Vauxhall: A History Paperback – 1 Aug. 2005

by Robert Cook (Author)

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Vauxhall: A History’ tells the story of the cars, the people that built them and also of Bedford, the truck and van division of Vauxhall.

Civil War America: Making a Nation, 1848-1877

8 ratings1 review

The American Civil War was without doubt the defining event in the history of the United States. This up-to-date analyisis of a critical period goes beyond the origins, course and consequences of the Civil War to bring in other important themes such as racial conflict, gender relations, religion, the popular memory and state formation.

    First Class Male

    1. Building Muscle

    Could Ten-Minute ‘Micro Workouts’ Be The Key To Building The Best Physique of Your Life?

    Work from home? Pulse your workouts throughout the day to supersize your gains

    By Andrew Tracey

    27 Feb 2023 muscular athletic young man training for body building at home


    At some point in time it seems to have become etched in stone that muscle-building workouts must follow a very particular format — train different parts of your body, once a day, for somewhere between 40-90 minutes, 3-5 days per week. Of course this varies, but most fitness advice never seems to venture too far from this basic template.

    But we’re here to tell you that the greatest gains of your life may well be found on the other side of this formula, that the latest research suggests that training the same movements, more frequently will in fact lead to greater increases in size, and that if you’re currently working from home — you’re in the best position to leverage ten-minute, muscle swelling ‘micro workouts’.

    What are Micro Workouts?

    ‘Micro workouts’ involve performing short, sharp bursts of resistance training, just ten minutes in length, multiple times throughout the day. Although it may seem counterintuitive, training more frequently in this fashion will actually see you training less in total, clocking up just 30 minutes of total workout time per day, 4-5 days per week.

    The ‘secret sauce’ of this approach lays in the intensity you’re able to apply; with just 10 minutes to get through, and then hours to recover, you’re essentially hitting each exercise (or pair of exercises) fresh, enabling you to go all in and lay down some serious muscle building effort.

    Train, Eat, Repeat

    You may be having trouble envisaging how fitting three workouts into your day is going to be more practical than one, but at just ten minutes a pop and only requiring a single pair of dumbbells, simply grab one workout before breakfast, one before lunch and a final ten minutes before dinner and you’ll soon be wondering why you ever took hours out of your day to make the round trip to the gym. This schedule will also help to manage your blood sugar and appetite, as well as leaving you walking around with a pretty solid pump, 24 hours a day, all in half the time.

    How I Build My Body: KSI

    by Men’s Health UK

    Current Time 0:02


    Duration 7:31

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    The Workouts

    The three ten minute protocols below target your chest, shoulders, legs and back — building express full-body muscle. Grab your dumbbells and start a running clock. For each micro workout, perform the prescribed reps of movement one at the beginning of each minute, for five minutes, before immediately beginning five minutes of movement two.

    Spread the three workouts throughout your day, ideally aiming to complete them around meal times.

    When you can easily complete each five minute blast without breaking a sweat, it’s time to upgrade those dumbbells.

    Micro Workout One

    weights, exercise equipment, shoulder, overhead press, kettlebell, arm, dumbbell, physical fitness, standing, muscle,

    1. Push Press x 10-15 reps every minute for five minutes

    Clean your dumbbells onto your shoulders, palms facing in. Take a breath and brace your core. (A) Dip at the knees and use your legs to help (B) press your dumbbells overhead. Lower under control to the ground. After 10 reps, switch partners.

    press up, weights, arm, exercise equipment, kettlebell, muscle, chest, dumbbell, joint, physical fitness,

    2. Push-up x 10- 20 reps every minute for five minutes

    Drop into a strong plank position, with your core tight and hands on your dumbbells (A), bend your elbows to bring your chest to the floor (B). Keep your elbows close to your body as you push back up explosively.

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    Micro Workout Two

    dumbbell front squat

    1. Front Squat x 10-15 reps every minute for five minutes

    Clean your dumbbells up and secure them on your shoulders (A). From here, drop into a front squat, until your thighs pass parallel to the ground (B), before driving back up. By this point fatigue will be setting in, but focus on your breathing and keep your form tight.

    db dumbbell deadlift

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    2. Dumbbell deadlift x 10-15 reps every minute for five minutes

    With your dumbbells to the floor just outside of your feet, hinge down and grip them with a flat back and neutral spine (A). Engage your lats and stand upright, pushing the ground away with your feet, keeping your chest up and black flat throughout (B). Lower them back to the ground in a hinging motion and repeat.

    Micro Workout Three

    weights, exercise equipment, shoulder, overhead press, kettlebell, arm, dumbbell, physical fitness, standing, muscle,

    1. Bent Over Row x 10-15 reps every minute for five minutes

    Hold your dumbbells at your sides and hinge at the hips until your chest is parallel to the floor, dumbbells hanging below your knees (A). Keeping your elbows close to your body, row both dumbbells towards your hips (B), squeeze your shoulder blades down and together and lower under control to the start before repeating. Avoid using momentum from your torso and focus on squeezing your back, hard.

    weights, exercise equipment, muscle, shoulder, arm, dumbbell, standing, kettlebell, sports equipment, bodybuilding,

    2. Hang power cleans x 10-15 reps every minute for five minutes

    Stand tall with your dumbbells, holding them at your sides. Hinge at the hips to lower them to your knees (A). Stand back up with a slight jump, using the momentum to pull the dumbbells up on to your shoulders (B). Stand up straight, then lower under control to your sides and repeat. Keep this fast and explosive; if your heart rate doesn’t hit the roof, you’re doing them wrong.

    More FromBuilding Muscle

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    CrossFit Open 23.3: Tips & Tactics by Zack George

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    How Miles Teller Built His Body

    This article was produced by Grist in partnership with Post Script Media. Listen to a podcast version of this story.

    Chanpory Rith, a 42-year-old product designer at the software company Airtable, bought a house in Berkeley, California with his partner at the end of 2020. The couple wasn’t planning to buy, but when Covid hit and they began working from their one-bedroom San Francisco apartment, they developed a new hobby: browsing listings on Zillow and Redfin — ​“real estate porn,” as Rith put it.

    Their pandemic fantasizing soon became a pandemic fairy tale: They fell for a five-bedroom midcentury home in the Berkeley hills with views of San Francisco Bay and put down an offer. ​“And then came the joys and tribulations of homeownership,” Rith said.

    One of those tribulations began with a plan to install solar panels. Rith didn’t consider himself a diehard environmentalist, but he was concerned about climate change and wanted to do his part to help. He didn’t have a car but planned on eventually getting an electric vehicle and also wanted to swap out the house’s natural-gas appliances for electric versions. Getting solar panels would be a smart first step, he figured, because it might trim his utility bills. But Rith soon found out that the house’s aging electrical panel would need to be upgraded to support rooftop solar. And he had no idea how hard it would be to find someone to do it.

    A woman walks past a home with solar panels installed on the roof in Oakland, California.
    A woman walks past a home with solar panels installed on the roof in Oakland, California. (Paul Chinn/Getty Images)

    Many of the electricians Rith reached out to didn’t respond. Those who did were booked out for weeks, if not months. He said they were so busy that the conversations felt like interviews — as if he were being evaluated, to suss out whether his house was worth their time. 

    “It felt like trying to get your kid into a nice kindergarten, where you have to be interviewed and do a lot of things just to get on the radar of these electricians,” Rith told Grist.

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    Budd Davisson, EAA/Sport Aviation, January, 2000

    Baby Bipes:
    One Wing is Never Enough
    How about a canard biplane! Yeah, that’s the ticket! New meets old. What a great idea! Oh, it’s been done already? Oh, yeah, Orville and Wilbur. I forgot about them. Biplanes have been with us since day one and, in fact, were the first, and favored type of homebuilt even before the Wright boys wandered on the scene. It was shortly after graduating out of box kites that guys like Lillenthal and Chanute began building biplanes and gliding down every piece of sloping topography they could find. In fact, it may have been the light, but rigid box-kite that gave them their inspiration in the first place. They needed light, extremely strong and easy-to-build structures. The biplane was it. A century later, the biplane is STILL it. The stick and wire structure is hard to beat when it comes to simplicity, reliability and ease of construction. At the beginning, there was no romance attached to a biplane. After all, that’s what all airplane’s were. It was the up-start monoplanes that were in the minority. Today, however, looking back on a century of biplanes, it’s impossible to miss the romance and satisfaction that’s attached to a wind-in-the-wires biplane. Many don’t realize that the homebuilt aircraft industry was alive and thriving before WWI and a lot of the designs were biplanes. Then, in the ’20’s, magazines loved to fill their pages with tempting plans and pictures of baby bipes like the Lincoln Sport. Leap over the war and homebuilding is reborn yet again, this time under the marquee of the EAA. And the biplane is still there. This year, the EAA will celebrate 45 years as an organization and the biplane, which looked like it might be sliding off to the edges of 1990’s sport aviation, is coming on stronger than ever. Now we’re seeing things like composite sorta-Staggerwings and Curtis’s latest, the Macho Stinker. The biplane soldiers on. In celebration of a century of bipes, we thought we’d do a round-up of the more popular types as well as those golden oldies which are as good now as they were then. Golden Oldies
    During the 1950’s and early 1960’s the goal was to get in the air as economically as possible. The primary construction component was a liberal amount of builder-supplied elbow grease. Kits didn’t exist and no one gave serious thought to having someone else build even a small component of their airplane for them. The biplanes which came out of that era reflected all of those concerns. They were simple, straight forward machines designed specifically to be constructed by the average handyman on a budget in his garage. And that’s where the majority of them came from.   Knight Twister
    Vernon Payne’s inspired design actually pre-staged all other homebuilt biplanes and, when it was introduced in 1929, was radical in the extreme. It’s tiny 55 sq. ft, finely tapered wing (15′ span) scared a lot of pilots. Payne stayed with the design, continually updating it until his death just a few years ago. The larger wing airplanes (75 sq. ft.) known as the Imperials are one of the sexiest airplanes ever designed. Structurally, Payne’s original design is an engineering tour d’ force, in its approach to lightness. The fuselage is a traditional, although light, tubing structure but the wings and tail surfaces are super lightweight, plywood covered, wood structures using balsa wood to fill in the gaps. The airplane has suffered from a lot of bad press that appears to be the result of early-day Cub pilots trying to fly what was essentially a high performance airplane without proper training. The quintessential 1950’s homebuilt was Tony Sablar’s KT-85. Tony put 500 hours on the airplane and had nothing but 120 and 140 time before flying it. Mong
    Ralph Mong was, and is, a compact person and his airplane shows it. With tiny wings and a narrow fuselage, it isn’t made for the gravitationally challenged. It is, however, one of the least expensive biplanes that can be built, if only because it uses no flying wires. Mong chose to use a single lift strut rather than the traditional cross of wires to complete the structural truss of the wings. There is nothing in the airplane that can’t be built by the average builder with a bench grinder and a welding torch. The airplane is happiest with a C-90 although some were built with 65 hp. The Mong is fairly typical of the 1950’s short wing biplanes in that it assumes the general flight characteristics of a clod of dirt, when power-off, but other than that, presents no particular challenges to the modern day, well-trained tailwheel pilot. Smith Miniplane (see pirep)
    When Frank Smith’s Miniplane, N90P, appeared on the cover of Popular Mechanics in the late 1950’s, sport aviation got an incredible shot in the arm. That coverage alone may be why the Miniplane was the most popular biplane of it’s day. That and the fact it is a dead-simple, easy to build and fly airplane. As originally designed, the airplane had a rigid gear which made it prone to skip and bounce on landing. A lot of builders changed that to a coil-spring gear. It’s wings are among the simplest of the type to build and small enough to fit in any workshop. As with all airplanes of its type, it flies best when light, so pilots who install 150 hp engines give away some of its basic pasture goodness in search of performance. The airplane settles quickly when the power is off and is quicker than many taildraggers on the pavement. The old “…get some time in a Luscombe…” axiom applies here. Meyers Little Toot
    When biplanes were a major part of each fly-in, the Meyers Little Toot was considered the Cadillac of the breed. Bigger, smoother, professionally engineered, it offered the choice of either a tubing fuselage or one with an aluminum tail-cone aft of the pilot. Being bigger, and therefore, heavier, the airplane didn’t perform well on the 85 hp Continentals which was considered standard-issue for sport planes. In fact, the airplane was, and is, quiet commonly seen with engines as big as 180 stuffed in it. Of all the older biplanes, the Toot had the best visibility and best ground handling manners. It was a favorite for pilots wanting to paint their airplane up in ersatz military markings because of its hawk-like appearance. Pitts Special (see pirep)
    Although first designed in 1945, plans for the Pitts weren’t commonly available until 1960 when it was offered as the S-1C. The model designations denote different wing configurations, the C (which originally stood for Continental) had the relatively flat-bottomed M-6 airfoil with two ailerons on the bottom wing, the S-1D had the same wings with four ailerons and the S-1S, the most familiar competition model, has symmetrical wings and four ailerons. The S-1C’s have had engines as small as 85 hp and as large as hopped up 200’s. In any configuration, all Pitts are a delight to fly and not as demanding as their reputation would portray. They are, however, not airplanes to be flown without adequate check-out and preparation. Some dual in a two-place Pitts is worth any amount of money. The Pitts has a one-piece top wing with the swept-back spars spliced inside a plywood center section. The fuselage is trapezoidal in cross section, rather than square, so the top and bottom trusses are usually built first, rather than the sides. The cockpits get noticeably longer in the later Cs and the “D” and “S” models. The Pitts is the standard by which all other biplanes are judged, not only in aerobatic capabilities, but in overall handling and runway manners, as well. Just about all biplanes are easier on the runway, none are as capable in the air.   Starduster One (see pirep)
    Lou Stolp’s little airplane was, and is, one of the prettiest biplanes ever designed. It’s elliptical trailing edges are the result of changing the airfoil at the rear, rather than having different ribs at each station, so it’s not as complicated as it looks. Also, the wing uses a tubing truss for drag/anti-drag loads, rather than wires, which keeps the cost down and eases construction. The airplane is just enough larger than a Pitts that it is more sedate and possibly better suited to someone who isn’t up to handling the frenetic personality of the Pitts. It might also be a better choice for those who are extremely long of leg. GO TO PAGE TWO To read pilot reports on many of the aircraft above

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    Once your story runs in Chat mag we can sell it to a non-direct competitor to secure you ANOTHER magazine deal. We can also place your story with a national paper and even a daytime TV show such as Lorraine, Good Morning Britain and This Morning…  if that’s something you are interested in (but you don’t have to do anything you don’t want to).

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    Chat magazine is a great publication to appear in so if you would like to sell a story to Chat Magazine, get in touch with us today and we’ll help you appear in it!  Our service is completely free and you keep 100% of the fee.  Chat Magazine pay us to find, supply and write your story.

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    Why Did No One Tell UK Families How to Get Up To £230,000 Life Cover From Only £10 per Month?

    Jim Wheat | May 25th, 2021

    Millions of UK families are surprised to find out that life insurance is an affordable and easy way to protect their loved one’s future. For as little at £10 per month* you can get a very high cover policy that could allow your family to pay off the mortgage, pay for your children’s education and cover child care cost. The process is very simple and straight forward.

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    The word ‘diet’ has a negative connotation sometimes, but the ‘banana diet’ that many nutritionists praise these days is different.

    It lasts only four days and you can lose up to 4 kgs. Not only that, but also eating a lot of bananas improves digestion and therefore gives shine to the skin. Want to try? This is how it works.

    While other diets leave you tired and without energy, the banana diet is satisfying and also gives you wonderful sweetness. And the best part is that you can eat as many bananas as you want, because you don’t need much to feel full.

    I like this

    Banana Health Benefits

    Bananas are 74% water, but fructose and carbohydrates in bananas gave them a reputation as the weak link in the fruit family. But their health benefits outweigh the negative things.

    The carbohydrates in bananas are an excellent source of energy. For example, many people eat a banana before a workout because that way they get the energy they need.

    I like this

    Starting a banana diet

    Start with a few banana clusters. They are the only thing, along with water and milk that you will eat in the next four days. The best part is that you can eat the bananas the way you want. As a milkshake, slice them and put in a bowl or even freeze and eat as a frozen snack. At meal time, eat 3 bananas and then eat another one whenever you are hungry. At first, you may be a little hungry, but your body will get used to it very quickly.

    What happens to your body during a banana diet

    Because your body will not receive other nutrients, you will cleanse and remove all toxins from the body during the four days. Drink plenty of water to maximize the effect. And don’t worry. Because bananas contain serotonin – the happiness hormone, your mood will be excellent for the four days, and you will lose weight and fat, especially in the waist area.

    I like this

    When I heard about this diet, I was skeptical at first. But after I lost almost 4 kg in four days, I had to share it. It is perfect for people who want to cleanse the body and lose weight fast. Share it!

    Sources: Healthy-Dietpedia, IndiaTimes

    HEALTH 19/08/2018 Scientists reveal: This is what happens to your body if you start eating oatmeal every day FOOD 11/11/2016 If you eat 2 bananas each day for a month, that’s whats going to happend to your body HEALTH 08/12/2018 Doctors reveal: This is what happens to your body when you drink one cup of coffee a day HEALTH 13/11/2016 She applied a banana peel on the face, and that’s what happened to her…! HEALTH 13/08/2020 This is what will happen to your body if you eat one beet a day HOT 01/04/2021 Do you wake up often between 3AM and 5AM in the morning? The reason is much more important than you think HEALTH 15/01/2017 Feeling dizzy? That’s how you will treat vertigo in a couple of seconds using a simple and effective method HEALTH 22/10/2020 Doctors will not reveal this to you – a cheap, effective and natural way to get rid of lice immediately! NEWS 06/12/2016 A German research team proved that there is life after death is a great resource to provide simple but detailed information for those looking to save money by cutting their cable TV costs. You can learn how to stream different channels, discover great deals on streaming services, find out what each streaming service offers, and how to be the most cost-effective with your streaming device.

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    Daffney Unger dies aged 46 after concerning live stream – September 4th 2021

    Bang Showbiz  

    ‘Hunted’ Jeremy Kyle diagnosed with anxiety disorder after show axedKacey Musgraves doesn’t aspire to become a huge pop star

    Daffney Unger has died aged 46.Daffney smiling and posing for the camera: Daffney Unger© Bang Showbiz Daffney Unger

    The former WCW and TNA Wrestling star – who worked as an on-screen manager and in-ring competitor herself – has passed away after making concerning statements during an Instagram Live this week.

    On Thursday (02.09.21), her friend Lexie Fyfe tweeted: “We are very sad to have to announce the passing of Shannon Spruill aka Daffney Unger.

    Daffney Unger dies aged 46 after concerning live stream (

    Comment Western culture has done its best to confuse and destroy women as partners for men in family building. It’s a lower class thing orchestrated by the ruling elite – predatory class- who have carried on as usual, hypocritical as ever.

    Women are being led to believe that power and fame is the way to happiness. The power they are supposed to gain comes from the men they used to work with. This is nuclear decay. All manner of rubbish will be used to explain this woman’s premature death.

    No doubt female wrestling and boxing is about showing that modern women are not there to be messed with. Absolutely right. They are there to be messed up. R J Cook

    Roberta Jane Cookout and about – living dangerously !.

    Manchester Crime and Government Posted December 20th 2019

    Before George and Robert Stephenson’s railway was extended to Manchester, the city- a mere village at the start of the Industrial Revolution, was far away from us southerners.  The horrible lingering dampness of this place in the Pennines proved very suitable to the cotton spinning factories on which the revolution thrived.

    After the Napoleonic Wars- when the landowning classes thrived thanks to the punitive corn laws, causing hunger and misery for the labouring classes- the self appointed hero of Waterloo, Wellington ,became Tory Prime Minister by choice of this elite.  

    The Duke of Wellinngton, whose home address was Number 1 , London, thought it fair to send the militia to shoot people protesting against high corn prices due to a ban on cheaper imports.  That was the Peterloo Massacre at St Petersfields Manchester.  

    These little terraced houses, on the western outskirts of Manchester have been converted into retail outlets, giving clues to local life style/ There would have been houses facing these shops before 1960s demolition and construction of a dual carrageway. the dispossessed would have been moved to high rise blocks.
    Image Appledene Photographics/ RJC

    It was not just the Irish starving at the time, but they were brought over to keep labour costs low, and profits high.  Manchester was the centre of all this, so important that a canal was eventually dug out to the Atlantic Port of Liverpool- the Manchester Ship Canal.

    The first time I ever read the word Manchester was a six year old reading where my favourite Co-op fig roll biscuits were made.  The Co-op started in Rochdale Lancashire, near Manchester, as a workers combine to ensure good cheap food rather than the expensive adulterated rubbish produced by the Capitalist classes for the lower orders.

    Tower blocks peeping over the fence toward Manchester City Football Stadium. One of them looks as if it has been built inside a cage. There is a crowded local Victorian prison with the interesting name ‘Strangeways.’ Manchester crime rates are high.
    Image Appledene Photographics/RJC

    The next time I heard of Manchester I was still a boy, watching the new soap opera ‘Coronation St’ set in a backstreet of Manchester terraced houses.  I watched it at a friend’s birthday party in 1960.  There were only three of us at the party, running out of amusements we sat down to watch it on a black and white TV.  

    My friend’s home was also in a terrace, so was mine.  We also had a black and white TV.  The set was big, the screen quite small.  It as near our front room window, a window on the world and a window on the street, next to each other.  The road was a main route to London, always busy.  So was the pavement, bustling with busy body women, shrieking children and stoic men- their haven being the pub just up the road at the bottom of the school hill.

    My Childish painting of Sheep St Winslow, where I was born and grew up in the last house next to the last thatched cottage at the bottom of the hill. Manchester started life as a little country village like this in the nineteenth century. Farm workers were out to work in corron factories and other grim unnatural employment, helping a small number of people get rich at their expense.

    Much of life was black and white in those days. We all knew our place.  The illusion of Britain’s Imperial greatness lurked like a wounded monster, caught on newsreels reporting in denial.  Then came the illusion of the 1960s, places like Manchester were losing their terraces, high rise reservations for the surplus working classes grew like weeds from the rubble.  Bright young northerner headed south for fame and fortune.  And so we have what we have today.

    Remnants of the old nineteenth century cotton mills are overwhelmed by modern edifices built for profit and glamour. The city has two unviersities, a large student and ethnic population. On the day this picture was taken, firefighters were dealing with another major fire.
    Image Appledene Photographics/RJCRJC

    It took me nearly four hour to get there in my truck limited to 55 mph for economy.  A chunk of the motorway near Stafford wasis being converted to what they call SMART motorway, which means getting rid of the hard shoulder refuge.  This was another great David Cameron idea to improve traffic flow on the cheap, to hell with actual safety.

    Just past the terraced shops, I saw this giant Heineken Brewery. Alchohol has always been a relief to the working men- and now even more women, along with smoking despite health warnings.
    Image Appledene Photographics/RJC

    Trucking through Manchester, I saw remnants of the old city, and gaudy emblems of the new.  It is what it is.  This is the Northern Powerhouse.  The roads were noticeably quiet, making my job much easier.  That is always a good thing for me.  Job done, back I went, down to the not so sunny south where the rich folk, and my new Tory MP are pledged to block the HS2 rail project because they like having a nice view, peace, quiet, security etc, all paid for and provided at the expense of the low order masses.  The spirit of Peterloo lives on in diverse Britain, which is about as diverse in reality as it was in the nineteenth century.  Divide and rule is the key to successful crime and government. Robert Cook Search for:

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    About the Author

    Robert Cook
    facebook I went to school in Buckinghamshire, where my interests were music ( I was a violinist ), art ( winning county art competitions ) athletics and cross country ( I was a county team athlete ). My father died as a result of an accident- he was an ex soldier and truck driver- when I was 11. It could be said that I grew up in poverty, but I did not see it like that. As a schoolboy, I had my interests, hobbies and bicycle, worked on a farm, delivered news papers, did a lot of training for my sport, painting, and music. I also made model aeroplanes and was in the Air Training Corps, where we had the opportunity to fly an aeroplane. I had wanted to be a pilot, but university made me anti war. At the University of East Anglia-which I also represented in cross country and athletics- I studied economics, economic history, philosophy and sociology. Over the years, I have worked in a variety of manual, office and driving jobs. My first job after univerity was with the Inland Revenue in Havant, near Portsmouth. I left Hampshire to work for the Nitrate Corporation of Chile, then lecturing, teaching and journalism - then back to driving. I play and teach various styles of guitar and used to be a regular folk club performer. I quit that after being violently assaulted in Milton Keynes pub, after singing a song I wrote about how cop got away with killing Ian Tomlinson at G7, in broad daylight and caught on camera. The police took no action, saying taht my assailant had a good job. The pub in question was, and probably still is, popular with off duty police officers.